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Jumaat, Oktober 19, 2012

GST tak sesuai "cekik darah", kadar cukai di Malaysia tertinggi


Dalam keghairahan rakyat bergembira menerima perkhabaran pemberian pelbagai insentif daripada  kerajaan sebagaimana diumumkan Dato' Seri Najib Razak dalam Bajet 2013, terdapat beberapa perkara penting yang menghanyutkan rakyat dengan pengumuman itu. Peningkatan defisit dan hutang negara serta pemberian "one off" antara perkara penting agar rakyat tidak terjerumus dalam perangkap Kerajaan Umno-BN. Ikuti temubual NYZA AYOB, ADZHAR TAJUDDIN dan  ARIF ATAN dalam wawancara eksklusif pakar ekonomi, Dr Rosli Yaakop di Pejabat Editorial Harakah pada 3 Oktober lalu.

Adakah sistem cukai yang dikenakan berpatutan seperti cukai ke atas syarikat dan cukai pendapatan.

DR ROSLI YAAKUB: Cukai di Malaysia jika diukur nisbah hasil cukai kepada KDNK secara relatifnya adalah tinggi iaitu 14 -16 peratus. Sedangkan di Singapura hanya 13-14 peratus. Di Indonesia 11-13 peratus; Kemboja 9-11; Filipina 12-14 peratus; China 9-10 peratus;  India 9-11 peratus. Ini menunjukkan secara relatifnya beban cukai di Malaysia lebih tinggi berbanding negara Asia yang lain. Namun demikian bilangan rakyat Malaysia yang membayar cukai hanya 1.7 juta orang sedangkan tenaga kerja di Malaysia berjumlah 12 juta orang. Ini menggambarkan, di sana banyak pengecualian cukai. Yang kedua, ini menunjukkan bilangan rakyat Malaysia yang berpendapatan rendah yang tidak termasuk ruang lingkup cukai. 
Alasan utama, pendapatan rendah dan tidak payah bayar cukai. Saya rasa kerajaan sedar akan hal ini. Dan beban cukai di Malaysia adalah tinggi. Kerajaan kena turunkan cukai pendapatan peribadi kira-kira satu peratus lagi. Jadi cukai pendapatan korporat di Malaysia kekal 25 peratus dan cukai pendapatan peribadi diturunkan kepada 26 kepada 25 peratus. Namun demikian kadar cukai ini lebih tinggi daripada cukai pendapatan korporat di Singapura iaitu 17 peratus. Dan kadar pendapatan individu di Singapura juga dalam lingkungan 17 peratus. Paling tinggi pun 20 peratus. 

Adakah Dr rasa pelaksanaan cukai ini termasuk dengan pelaksanaan Cukai Barangan dan Perkhidmatan (GST)?

Walaupun kerajaan mengatakan hasil cukai di Malaysia tidak mencukupi untuk menampung perbelanjaan tahunan Malaysia dan sebahagian besar adalah jasil petroleum, kerajaan melihat di sana ada keperluan untuk meningkatkan lagi kutipan cukai daripada rakyat Malaysia. Maka kerajaan dalam Bajet 2013 itu telah membayangkan akan melaksanakan Cukai Perkhidmatan dan Barangan (GST). Kerajaan nampaknya nak laksanakan secepat mungkin. Jika tidak memikirkan akan menghadapi masalah besar penentangan rakyat yang membolehkan dia kalah dalam PRU 13, GST mungkin telah diperkenalkan tahun ini. Tetapi memandangkan di sana ada penentangan besar daripada rakyat dan mood rakyat tidak menyokong pelaksanaan GST, kerajaan Umno-BN nampaknya menunda pelaksanaan ini tetapi Menteri Kewangan membayangkan ianya akan tetap dilaksanakan tetapi hanya masa tidak ditentukan. 

Apakah Pakatan Rakyat bersetuju dengan GST?

Daripada cara ia dibentangkan, kerajaan memang berazam hendak laksanakan GST. Dan kita tidak setuju pelaksanaan GST kerana banyak perkara yang perlu diperbaiki daripada segi belanjawan dan kewangan negara. Satu, masalah rasuah yang menyebabkan ketirisan hasil negara...masalah pembaziran yang mana hasil negara tidak digunakan sepenuhnya. Ketirisan daripada segi menaikkan harga projek kerajaan dan banyak wang digunakan untuk projek-projek mewah yang bersifat gajah putih dan perkara mungkar seperti ini, maka tidak wajar rakyat Malaysia dibebankan dengan perkara seperti ini. 
Cukai GST ini adalah satu cukai yang boleh kita samakan seperti pukat harimau. Orang kecil kena. Orang besar kena. Semua orang kena masuk dalam pukat tuh....ikan bilis ke... ikan duyung ke... ikan jerung ke. Semua masuk. Cukai GST ini kena pada semua orang kecuali pelaksanaan cukai ini disertakan dengan pembaikan dalam pengurusan kewangan negara dan membanteras rasuah disertakan dengan program kebajikan kepada rakyat miskin dan berpendapatan rendah yang komprehensif kecuali ia disertakan dengan penurunan kadar cukai korporat kepada kadar cukai pendapatan individu dan kenaikan cukai GST secara beransur-ansur. 

Maknanya GST lansung tak sesuai dilaksanakan...

Ia tidak sesuai dilaksanakan di Malaysia kecuali kita tidak kisah dengan beban cukai yang akan ditanggung oleh rakyat. Selain itu, kita lihat Singapura apabila ia laksanakan GST, ia laksanakan secara berfasa-fasa. Dan cukai korporat serta cukai pendapatan individu diturunkan sikit-sikit. Singapura juga mengadakan program kebajikan yang komprehensif sehingga cara yang dilaksanakan Singapura untuk pelaksanaan GST itu tidak membebankan rakyat. Kita juga perlu ingat Singapura melaksanakan GST hanya setelah ia berstatus negara maju. Di mana pendapatan per kapita Singapura melebihi USD 15 ribu. Kita masih miskin nak laksanakan GST dan akan membebankan orang miskin.

39 ulasan:

Luke berkata...

Kajian terhadap GST mestilah lebih detail kerana kita belum pasti barangan yang dikenakan cukai, jika GST tertumpu kepada barangan mewah sahaja ia bukan masalah kerana mampu mengajar golongan berpendapatan tinggi berbelanja dengan bijak.

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